Despite progressive provisions on gender equality in Tanzania’s land laws, women have little representation in land allocation decisions, including meetings of village councils and village assemblies. Mainstreaming gender in local regulations can help to address this problem.The Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA), in partnership with the World Resources Institute (WRI) and Lawyers’ Environmental Action Team (LEAT), developed model by-laws to improve women’s participation in local-level decision making on village land management.
This report outlines the processes followed to develop the by-laws, the results so far, lessons learned and prospects for scaling up.
Last updated January 30, 2013.
You must register in order to upload Tools to the Tools Database, obtain full access to Tools, participate in discussion forums and fully utilize any networking functions on the Site. To register, you must be 18 years or older, have the requisite power and authority to enter into the Terms, truthfully and accurately provide all required information, including a legitimate email address, and obtain a unique username and password.
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Our Site includes a combination of content that we, our users and other third parties create (collectively, the “Content”). All of the Content available through the Site including, but not limited to, written content, photographs, graphics, images, illustrations, marks, logos, sound or video clips, and animations, is trademarked or copyright protected. Content posted to the Tools Database at namati.org/tools (such content, the “Tools”) is intended to be used as part of a platform provided for practitioners to share experiences and resources, including, but not limited to, research, training materials, monitoring and evaluation tools, case management systems and advocacy strategies. You may use a Tool to assist in performing issue advocacy consistent with the mission of Namati as published at https://namati.org/about/our-mission (the “Mission”), provided that your use of a Tool must in no way violate any law of the jurisdiction in which such Tool is used. Except as permitted herein, you may not use, store, display, modify, reproduce, publish, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, create derivative works of, distribute, publicly perform, publicly display or in any way exploit any of the materials or content on the Site in whole or in part.
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The Site is intended to provide general information about Namati, its mission of legal empowerment and programs and research which we support and to provide practitioners with an online network for the sharing of resources and experiences, including research, training materials, monitoring and evaluation tools, case management systems and advocacy strategies. The Site is not engaged in the provision of professional advice or information. Content posted on the Site should be considered as opinion only and should not be taken as a substitute for, without limitation, legal or other professional advice from a qualified service provider. We make no representations or warranties concerning any action taken by any person in reliance on the information provided through the Site. We will not be liable for any damages that may result, including but not limited to direct, indirect, consequential, special or other damages or economic loss, illness, injury or death.
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WE DO NOT WARRANT THAT THE SITE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR FREE. IN ADDITION, WE DO NOT MAKE ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY AS TO THE CONTENT ON THE SITE. THE SITE AND THE CONTENT ARE DISTRIBUTED ON AN “AS IS, AS AVAILABLE” BASIS. ANY MATERIAL THAT YOU DOWNLOAD OR OTHERWISE OBTAIN THROUGH THE SITE IS DONE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK, AND YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY POTENTIAL DAMAGES TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA THAT RESULTS FROM YOUR DOWNLOAD OF ANY SUCH MATERIAL. WE MAKE NO WARRANTIES THAT (i) THE SITE WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS, (ii) THE SITE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE OR ERROR FREE, (iii) THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF THE SITE WILL BE ACCURATE OR RELIABLE, (iv) THE QUALITY OF ANY PRODUCTS, SERVICES, INFORMATION OR OTHER MATERIAL THAT YOU OBTAIN THROUGH THE SITE WILL MEET YOUR EXPECTATIONS, OR (v) ANY ERRORS WILL BE CORRECTED. WE MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT WITH RESPECT TO THE SITE, ANY CONTENT OR ANY OF OUR SERVICES, TOOLS, PRODUCTS OR PROPERTIES. YOU EXPRESSLY AGREE THAT YOU WILL ASSUME THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SITE AND THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF ITS CONTENT. IN ADDITION, WE DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY, INTEGRITY OR QUALITY OF THE CONTENT ON THE SITE, AND YOU MAY NOT RELY ON ANY OF THIS CONTENT. WITHOUT LIMITATION, WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR POSTINGS BY USERS IN ANY INTERACTIVE SECTIONS OF THE SITE, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE TOOLS DATABASE.
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We reserve the right, at our own expense, to assume the exclusive defense and control of any matter for which you are required to indemnify us, and you agree to cooperate with our defense of these claims.
Materials may be made available through the Site by third parties who are not under our control. Namati respects the copyright interests of others and, as such, requires our users to comply with all Terms regarding copyrights. It is our policy to terminate user accounts for failure to comply with our copyright policy.
If you believe that any Content shown on or transmitted through the Site violates these Terms or your copyright please report the violation. In the case of a copyright violation please provide a written notice with a physical or electronic signature and the following information:
All notices should be sent to our designated agent as follows:
It is often difficult to determine if your intellectual property rights have been violated. We may request additional information before we remove allegedly infringing material.
We may be required by state or federal law to notify you of certain events. You hereby acknowledge and consent that such notices will be effective upon our posting them on the Site, our delivering them to you through email or your otherwise becoming aware of such notices through other means. If you do not provide us with accurate information, we cannot be held liable if we fail to notify you.
Our failure to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these Terms shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision.
You agree that regardless of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action arising out of or related to use of the Site or these Terms must be filed within one (1) month after such claim or cause of action arose or it will be forever barred.
If any part of these Terms is determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, then the invalid or unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most closely matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.
Last updated: May 25, 2018
This Policy describes our privacy practices and sets out your obligations and ours with respect to your use of the Site and the Forum. This Policy applies only to the Site and the Forum and does not necessarily apply to our offline collection of information.
Namati may collect and retain two types of information about Site and Forum visitors: (i) personal information that individual visitors voluntarily provide when interacting on the Site or Forum or on certain other occasions (such as via forms or in emails); and (ii) tracking data, which is data that is automatically collected from every Site and Forum visitor as they use and browse the site.
We may, from time to time, store and archive the information you submit to or through the Site and Forum. The information that we gather may include your name, title, and address, telephone number, email address, credit card number or other elements of personal information. In addition, if you contact us, we may keep a record of your correspondence, including any information contained therein.
You may decline to provide any personal information, but please realize that you thereby may be unable to register or to participate in activities or services offered on the Site and/or Forum.
In addition to the information you submit to or through the Site and Forum, we also may collect and store data from and about you gathered in the course of your use of the Site and Forum. We call this “tracking data.”
Such tracking data may include, but is not limited to, information regarding the number and frequency of visits to the Site and Forum, the websites that you access before and after you visit the Site and Forum, the software and operating system used to access the Site and Forum, and your IP address and Internet service provider.
Our use of your Information involves various forms of communication with you, including:
We will not disclose any personal information to third parties, except:
Information provided to third parties is limited to the information needed to perform their functions. We seek to limit third-party use of information; however, we are not responsible for such third-party use of information.
We retain the right to transfer or assign all information pursuant to a merger, purchase or other transaction relating to Namati or our assets.
The current list of third-party service providers we use include:
Personal information you submit via your member account, other than information provided or content posted by you to public areas of the Site as described below, is deleted from Namati’s records following the deletion of your account. However, such information may continue to be retained by third-party service providers to which it has been disclosed for one of the reasons listed above.
Your Information is stored on Digital Ocean servers in New York, USA.
We take reasonable precautions to protect your information from loss, misuse or alteration. You should recognize, however, that there is no such thing as “perfect security” on the Internet, and we cannot guarantee the security of your information. In addition, because Internet communications are unsecure, it is also possible that the information you supply to us or your access of any information via the Site will be intercepted during transmission. We are not liable for any breach of our systems or interception of our transmission, and we hereby fully disclaim, to the fullest extent possible under law, any liability associated with any claim relating to a breach of security, data or information.
You should be aware that any information provided or content posted by you to public areas of the Site, including but not limited to interactions on the Site and information posted to the Member Directory (via your profile), the Tools Database and the Forum, may be read, collected or used by other visitors of the Site, who may not need to log in as a member to view the information. Namati is not responsible for the third-party use of any information provided in such manner. By participating in the use of the Site’s interactive features, you consent to Namati’s use or disclosure of any content that you submit. For more information on posting content, please see our Terms.
The Forum uses data about your posts and other activity to make automated decisions about whether your posts are spam.
The Forum may also use data about your posts and activity to award you badges and calculate a trust level for your account. Your trust level may affect how you can participate in the Forum, such as whether you can upload images, as well as give you access to moderation and management powers in the Forum. Your trust level, therefore, reflects Forum administrators’ confidence in you, and their willingness to delegate community management functions, like moderation.
From time to time, we may email users of the Site or the Forum information regarding important developments affecting Namati and/or the Global Legal Empowerment Network. We may also email users on occasion regarding the Site or the Forum. Such emails may be sent to users of the Site or Forum even if they have not requested to receive any communication from us.
You may choose to unsubscribe from future emails by using the unsubscribe link included in all mass email correspondence from Namati and the Global Legal Empowerment Network.
If a user elects to use our referral service to inform a friend about the Site and Forum, we request the name and email address of the friend. Namati will automatically send the friend a one-time email inviting the friend to visit the Site. Namati stores this information for the sole purpose of sending this one-time email, and, while a third-party mail service provider may retain the information in its database, no additional emails will be sent by Namati without further action by the friend.
Because Namati is concerned about the privacy protection of children who access the Internet, we comply with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Accordingly, the Site and Forum are not intended for use by anyone under the age of 13, and we do not knowingly collect information from anyone under 13 years of age without the consent of a parent or guardian.
We reserve the right to disclose any information to comply with any law, regulation, decree, judgment, order, subpoena or any other governmental order (“Order”) without any obligation to contest or verify the accuracy of such Order.
This Policy will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, without regard to any principles of conflicts of law. You agree that any action at law or in equity that arises out of or relates to any use of the Site will be filed only in the state or federal courts located in New York County, and you hereby consent and submit to the personal jurisdiction of such courts for the purposes of litigating any such action.
The section titles in this Policy are for convenience only and have no legal or contractual effect.
The Site, the Forum, and any third party services they use, may be subject to additional terms and conditions regarding privacy and use of information. Your use of the Site and the Forum is subject to those terms and conditions, which are incorporated into this Policy by reference. In the event of an inconsistency between this Policy and any additional posted conditions, the provisions of the additional conditions shall control.
We may need to change the Policy from time to time in order to address new issues and to reflect changes on the Site or in the law. We reserve the right to revise or make any changes to the Policy, and your continued use of the Site subsequent to any changes to this Policy will mean that you agree to and accept such changes. You can tell if the Policy has been updated by checking the last revised date posted on the top of this page.
You can also access, remove, update or correct your information, and raise any questions or concerns regarding the Site or the Policy, by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org, or mailing:
Namati Data Protection Officer
1616 P Street NW, Suite 101
Washington, DC 20036, USA
If you live in a country which has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (EU; 2016/679), you have a right to lodge a complaint with your relevant supervisory authority about this policy and its application.
The Policy was updated in May 2018 to comply with the General Data Protection Regulations.