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Closing the Enforcement Gap: A community-led groundtruthing of the expansion of a National Highway in Uttara Kannada

Centre for Policy Research - Namati Environmental Justice Program,

In 2011, the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) proposed the widening and upgrading of the existing National Highway (NH) 17, renaming it NH-66 in the process. It is mentioned in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report and in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) that the construction of the highway will reduce traffic, fuel consumption…

“We Want What the Ok Tedi Women Have!” – Community Mining Agreements in Papua New Guinea

Georgia Harley, Nicholas Menzies,

In many developing countries, including Papua New Guinea (PNG), land and natural resources are citizens’ key assets. Women’s agency over these assets—that is, their ability to make choices and transform those choices into actions and outcomes (or more simply, the ability to define goals and act on them)—is commonly weak. This is especially so when…

Social Audit Program for the Local Road Construction Project San Antonio del Monte

Otto Eric Vidaurre,

This social audit experience was used in the project to build a six kilometer local road in El Salvador. The project benefited 500 families directly and an additional 1,000 families indirectly, all low-income. Project duration was eight months, including training community delegates in the social auditing process and conducting supervision, evaluation, monitoring, and control of…

Participatory Monitoring of Land and Housing Policy in the Municipality of Quilmes, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

Community Council on Land and Housing Policy, María Andrea Castagnola,

The first experience in participatory planning and administration in the area of land and housing policy occurred in 1998, in Buenos Aires Province. The Deliberating Council [Consejo Deliberante] approved a grassroots initiative to create a Community Council for Land and Housing Policy. The Community Council, made up of 14 government and civil society representatives, has…

Integrated Development Programme of Women-Cooperatives to Reduce Gender-Based Violence in Nepal


Since March 2010, the UK has been supporting this program through Paralegal Committees (PLC). PLCs, a community based mechanism, were initially established in 1999 and since then they have been working on preventing and responding to a wide range of rights violations experienced by both women and children. The program has four components: Awareness raising/legal…

Annual Review of Integrated Development Programme of Women Cooperatives to Reduce Gender Based Violence in Nepal


The UK has been supporting Women’s Empowerment and the Promotion of Rights through a Para Legal Committee (PLC) program from March 2010 until August 2013.  Paralegal Committees (PLCs) were initially established in 1999 and have become an important feature in villages and communities, across Nepal, to help prevent and respond to violence against women and…

Filling the Legal Void? Experimental Evidence from a Community-Based Legal Aid Program for Gender-Equal Land Rights in Tanzania

Valerie Mueller, Lucy Billings, Tewodaj Mogues, Amber Peterman, Ayala Wineman,

Abstract: Gender disparities continue to exist in women’s control, inheritance, and ownership of land in spite of legislation directing improvements in women’s land access. Women are often excluded from traditional patrilineal inheritance systems, often lack the legal know-how or enforcement mechanisms to ensure their property rights are maintained, and often lack initial capital or asset…

Empowering the Marginalized: Case Studies of Social Accountability Initiatives in Asia

Public Affairs Foundation, Karen Sirker, Sladjana Cosic,

Recent years have witnessed growing concerns about issues of governance and accountability in developing countries. An emergent need exists for identifying and promoting approaches toward building accountability that rely on civic engagement. This volume demonstrates that compared with other regions, social accountability initiatives across South and Southeast Asia have a much greater element of community…

Community-Based Monitoring: When Does it Work? Evidence from Uganda

Martina Björkman, Damien de Walque, Jakob Svensson,

Community Driven Development (CDD) is one of the most frequently advocated processes for managing and implementing (local) development programs. The CDD approach operates on the principles of participatory governance (stimulate participation by intended beneficiaries) as a mechanism to strengthen demand-responsiveness and local accountability. This paper provides evidence of impact of the CDD approach in a context — primary…

A Traditional Peasant Organization Engaged in Social Monitoring in the Municipality of Totora (in Voice, Eyes and Ears Social Accountability in Latin America)

Juan Carlos Escalera López,

This essay forms a part of a World Bank report:  “Voice, Eyes and Ears: Social Accountability in Latin America”.  It begins at p.99. Since 2001, 3600 peasant families from the municipality of Totora-traditionally organized into 83 rural unions comprising 13 subcentrals and the Agrarian Central of Moyapampa (CAM), have delegated a representative to receive three days of…

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