UNDP and UNODC are collaborating to develop A Handbook and Training Curriculum for Policymakers and Practitioners on Early Access to legal aid in Criminal Investigations and Proceedings. This knowledge product builds on UNDP and UNODC efforts to develop a knowledge base and provide practical policy tools to practitioners on legal aid programming, particularly in Africa. This E-Consultation is aimed at soliciting inputs and specific country experiences and examples from UNDP and UNODC staff, experts and practitioners to feed into the formulation of the handbook and ensure it reflects current challenges and good practices. Network members are invited to address the following questions:
In addition to your contributions, please also share a brief description of the program and its outputs (to be included as examples in the handbook); as well as any research undertaken on this subject, legal documents, project documents, evaluations and other materials that are relevant to the study and the questions raised. We’d also appreciate examples of training schemes on early access to legal aid for lawyers or police officers, codes of conduct or service delivery standards for those providing legal aid, and any relevant forms used by police or legal service providers. Participants are also invited to express interest to participate in potential pilot of the study once finalized.
Networks members are encouraged to participate in this e-consultation by submitting your contributions to email@example.com.
Effective legal aid and legal services are essential to ensure access to justice, increased accountability, empowerment of the poor, and human-rights based approach to sustainable human development. International and regional legal instruments affirm the right to legal assistance particularly in criminal proceedings and encourage state parties to provide free legal aid in order to uphold the right of access to justice for all. The 2004 Lilongwe Declaration on Accessing Legal Aid in the Criminal Justice System in Africa and the United Nations Principles and Guidelines on Access to Legal Aid in Criminal Justice Systems recently adopted by the General Assembly resolution A/RES/67/187 further elaborate the nature of state obligations to provide legal aid in criminal justice matters and propose practical measures for their implementation.
Notable progress has been made in expansion of legal aid services throughout the world. However, multiple barriers such as lack of information and awareness about rights and obligations, cultural and linguistic limitations, physical location, financial capacity, lack of trust and capacity of formal systems and traditional justice systems that further entrench existing social inequalities continue to exclude many from benefiting from these services.
A recent UNODC Survey on Access to Legal Aid in Africa found that there is little likelihood of people going through the criminal justice process benefiting from legal services. Research by UNDP and Open Society Justice Initiative further suggests that lack of adequate protection during criminal justice processes, particularly during the early stages, is directly related to detrimental social and economic impact at the individual, community and societal levels. Although access to legal services is critical at all stages, the early stages of a criminal justice process are critical to the trajectory and outcome of the overall criminal process. Where essential legal services are not in place, a significant potential negative impact on the overall outcome and fairness of the process is more likely.
Early access mainly refers to the provision of legal assistance at the initial phase of the criminal justice process beginning from the time a person interacts with the police as a possible suspect through initial pretrial stages. It is often facilitated by ‘call-in’ schemes (e.g., using nominated lawyer, duty lawyer, or ad hoc arrangements), the location of lawyers and/or paralegals at police stations/detention facilities and ‘visiting’ schemes, where lawyers/paralegals periodically visit police and correctional detention facilities. While the benefits of early access are well established, there is little knowledge and practical guidance for policy makers and practitioners on how to set up early access schemes, pre-requisites for their effectiveness, possible structure and delivery mechanisms and the roles and responsibilities and various actors.
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Last updated January 30, 2013.
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By utilizing the Site, you agree to indemnify, defend and hold Namati and all of its officers, directors, employees, representatives, Advisory Council members, Network Guidance Committee members, agents, information providers and licensors (collectively, the “Namati Parties”) harmless from and against any and all liability, losses, costs and expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by any Namati Party in connection with any claim, including, but not limited to, claims for defamation, violation of rights of publicity and/or privacy, copyright infringement or trademark infringement arising out of:
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Materials may be made available through the Site by third parties who are not under our control. Namati respects the copyright interests of others and, as such, requires our users to comply with all Terms regarding copyrights. It is our policy to terminate user accounts for failure to comply with our copyright policy. If you believe that any Content shown on or transmitted through the Site violates these Terms or your copyright please report the violation. In the case of a copyright violation please provide a written notice with a physical or electronic signature and the following information:
All notices should be sent to our designated agent as follows:
It is often difficult to determine if your intellectual property rights have been violated. We may request additional information before we remove allegedly infringing material.
Last updated: May 25, 2018
This Policy describes our privacy practices and sets out your obligations and ours with respect to your use of the Site and the Forum. This Policy applies only to the Site and the Forum and does not necessarily apply to our offline collection of information.
Namati may collect and retain two types of information about Site and Forum visitors: (i) personal information that individual visitors voluntarily provide when interacting on the Site or Forum or on certain other occasions (such as via forms or in emails); and (ii) tracking data, which is data that is automatically collected from every Site and Forum visitor as they use and browse the site.
We may, from time to time, store and archive the information you submit to or through the Site and Forum. The information that we gather may include your name, title, and address, telephone number, email address, credit card number or other elements of personal information. In addition, if you contact us, we may keep a record of your correspondence, including any information contained therein.
You may decline to provide any personal information, but please realize that you thereby may be unable to register or to participate in activities or services offered on the Site and/or Forum.
In addition to the information you submit to or through the Site and Forum, we also may collect and store data from and about you gathered in the course of your use of the Site and Forum. We call this “tracking data.”
Such tracking data may include, but is not limited to, information regarding the number and frequency of visits to the Site and Forum, the websites that you access before and after you visit the Site and Forum, the software and operating system used to access the Site and Forum, and your IP address and Internet service provider.
Our use of your Information involves various forms of communication with you, including:
We will not disclose any personal information to third parties, except:
Information provided to third parties is limited to the information needed to perform their functions. We seek to limit third-party use of information; however, we are not responsible for such third-party use of information.
We retain the right to transfer or assign all information pursuant to a merger, purchase or other transaction relating to Namati or our assets.
The current list of third-party service providers we use include:
Reduces spam posts on the Forum.
Privacy notice: https://automattic.com/privacy/
Amazon Web Services
Stores backups for the Site and the Forum.
Privacy notice: https://aws.amazon.com/privacy/
Hosts and stores backups for the Forum.
Privacy notice: https://www.digitalocean.com/legal/privacy/
Compiles visitor statistics on the Site and Forum. You can opt out of Google Analytics using a browser extension.
Privacy notice: https://www.google.com/analytics/terms/
Online service for organizing and hosting webinars.
Privacy notice: https://www.logmeininc.com/legal/privacy
Provides mailing list and mail server services for sending newsletters, Forum notifications, and weekly email summaries.
Privacy notice: https://mailchimp.com/legal/privacy/
Online service providing contact management system.
Privacy notice: https://www.salesforce.com/company/privacy/
Provides cloud servers for hosting the Site.
Privacy notice: https://wpengine.com/legal/privacy/
Online service to automate adding member data to Salesforce.
Privacy notice: https://zapier.com/privacy/
Personal information you submit via your member account, other than information provided or content posted by you to public areas of the Site as described below, is deleted from Namati’s records following the deletion of your account. However, such information may continue to be retained by third-party service providers to which it has been disclosed for one of the reasons listed above.
Your Information is stored on Digital Ocean servers in New York, USA.
We take reasonable precautions to protect your information from loss, misuse or alteration. You should recognize, however, that there is no such thing as “perfect security” on the Internet, and we cannot guarantee the security of your information. In addition, because Internet communications are unsecure, it is also possible that the information you supply to us or your access of any information via the Site will be intercepted during transmission. We are not liable for any breach of our systems or interception of our transmission, and we hereby fully disclaim, to the fullest extent possible under law, any liability associated with any claim relating to a breach of security, data or information.
You should be aware that any information provided or content posted by you to public areas of the Site, including but not limited to interactions on the Site and information posted to the Member Directory (via your profile), the Tools Database and the Forum, may be read, collected or used by other visitors of the Site, who may not need to log in as a member to view the information. Namati is not responsible for the third-party use of any information provided in such manner. By participating in the use of the Site’s interactive features, you consent to Namati’s use or disclosure of any content that you submit. For more information on posting content, please see our Terms.
The Forum uses data about your posts and other activity to make automated decisions about whether your posts are spam.
The Forum may also use data about your posts and activity to award you badges and calculate a trust level for your account. Your trust level may affect how you can participate in the Forum, such as whether you can upload images, as well as give you access to moderation and management powers in the Forum. Your trust level, therefore, reflects Forum administrators’ confidence in you, and their willingness to delegate community management functions, like moderation.
From time to time, we may email users of the Site or the Forum information regarding important developments affecting Namati and/or the Global Grassroots Justice Network. We may also email users on occasion regarding the Site or the Forum. Such emails may be sent to users of the Site or Forum even if they have not requested to receive any communication from us.
You may choose to unsubscribe from future emails by using the unsubscribe link included in all mass email correspondence from Namati and the Grassroots Justice Network.
If a user elects to use our referral service to inform a friend about the Site and Forum, we request the name and email address of the friend. Namati will automatically send the friend a one-time email inviting the friend to visit the Site. Namati stores this information for the sole purpose of sending this one-time email, and, while a third-party mail service provider may retain the information in its database, no additional emails will be sent by Namati without further action by the friend.
Because Namati is concerned about the privacy protection of children who access the Internet, we comply with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Accordingly, the Site and Forum are not intended for use by anyone under the age of 13, and we do not knowingly collect information from anyone under 13 years of age without the consent of a parent or guardian.
We reserve the right to disclose any information to comply with any law, regulation, decree, judgment, order, subpoena or any other governmental order (“Order”) without any obligation to contest or verify the accuracy of such Order.
This Policy will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, without regard to any principles of conflicts of law. You agree that any action at law or in equity that arises out of or relates to any use of the Site will be filed only in the state or federal courts located in New York County, and you hereby consent and submit to the personal jurisdiction of such courts for the purposes of litigating any such action.
The section titles in this Policy are for convenience only and have no legal or contractual effect.
The Site, the Forum, and any third party services they use, may be subject to additional terms and conditions regarding privacy and use of information. Your use of the Site and the Forum is subject to those terms and conditions, which are incorporated into this Policy by reference. In the event of an inconsistency between this Policy and any additional posted conditions, the provisions of the additional conditions shall control.
We may need to change the Policy from time to time in order to address new issues and to reflect changes on the Site or in the law. We reserve the right to revise or make any changes to the Policy, and your continued use of the Site subsequent to any changes to this Policy will mean that you agree to and accept such changes. You can tell if the Policy has been updated by checking the last revised date posted on the top of this page.
You can access, remove, update or correct your information in your Site profile and your Forum profile.
You can also access, remove, update or correct your information, and raise any questions or concerns regarding the Site or the Policy, by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org, or mailing:
Namati Data Protection Officer
1616 P Street NW, Suite 101
Washington, DC 20036, USA
If you live in a country which has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (EU; 2016/679), you have a right to lodge a complaint with your relevant supervisory authority about this policy and its application.
The Policy was updated in May 2018 to comply with the General Data Protection Regulations.