by Uli Parulian Sihombing
Indonesian institutions of higher learning generally recognize a set of three core principles known as ‘Tri Dharma’: education, research, and community service. According to Tri Dharma, a university must go beyond the traditional mandates of research and education to include community service in its vision and mission and emphasize practical applications in academic activities.
In Beyond Rule of Law Orthodoxy (2003), Stephen Golub writes that legal services and related development activities must take legal empowerment approaches into account in order to genuinely strengthen the ability of disadvantaged groups to control their own lives. In this context, institutions of higher legal education can also play a key role – by engaging in Clinical Legal Education, or CLE.
According to Tri Dharma, a university must go beyond the traditional mandates of research and education to include community service in its vision and mission, and emphasize practical applications in academic activities.
Clinical Legal Education is a legal empowerment approach with three primary objectives: 1) to increase access to justice for underrepresented groups; 2) to develop a legal education system focused on essential skills, knowledge, and values for up-and-coming lawyers; and 3) to support high standards of quality in the legal profession.
When universities host campus-based legal aid offices, clinical programs, and courses that emphasize social justice values, they contribute to the Tri Dharma principle of community service by advancing real-life applications of legal empowerment.
Professor Mochtar Kusumaatmadja, of the Law School University of Pajajaran, first introduced Clinical Legal Education to Indonesia in 1970. Under the CLE model, law students were encouraged to undertake a legal clinic practicum as an alternative to the traditional thesis requirement for degree completion. In early stages, the model proved difficult to implement, as law schools were unable to provide clinical courses, nor access to law clinics for their students.
But from 2007 to present, the Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI), in cooperation with two Indonesian law schools – the Islamic University of Indonesia in Yogjarkarta and the University of Pasundan in Bandung – has established several Clinical Legal Education programs in Indonesia. As a result, law students are now increasingly able to take advantage of clinical courses as part of their law school education while continuing to develop their professional capacity and networks.
Law schools are now also involved in a range of legal empowerment activities, including street law programs – which involve law students teaching local high school students and members of rural communities about the law – and the training of law student paralegal volunteers. Communities benefit from engagement with law students, becoming aware of their rights and ways to access justice using the law.
As a result, law students take advantage of clinical courses as part of their legal education and communities become aware of their rights and ways to access justice using the law
In 2011, members of public and private law schools across the country attended a symposium at Islamic University of Indonesia Law School in Yogjakarta where they shared experiences and lessons learned from CLE implementation at their respective institutions. The symposium concluded with recommendations to: 1) create a formal CLE association in Indonesia; and 2) ensure an ongoing exchange of practical knowledge, experience and updated information about CLE amongst participants. Community representatives noted that CLE had made a substantial contribution to their awareness and understanding of the law and issues relevant to them.
Challenges moving forward
The Indonesian Legal Resource Center (ILRC) continues to work to identify challenges to CLE implementation efforts across the country. Law schools face a range of challenges from within, including lack of administrative support and adherence by educators to traditional teaching methodologies that do not allow for the establishment of university-based legal aid offices or the integration of such clinics into legal studies curricula. External challenges include lack of support from the government, especially the Ministry of National Education.
In order to tackle both internal and external challenges, law schools – and the government – must remember the principle of ‘Tri-Dharma’ – that service to community is an essential foundation for any successful institution of higher learning.
Uli Parulian Sihombing is Executive Director of the Indonesian Legal Resource Center (ILRC), a Jakarta-based non-governmental organization that focuses on access to justice issues in Indonesia. He is also a visiting lecturer on human rights at Swiss German University in Tangerang, serves as an advisory member for the Indonesian Clinical Legal Education Association, and is a member of Namati’s Network Guidance Committee. Previously Uli worked at the Jakarta Legal Aid Institute (LBH Jakarta), as a public interest lawyer from 1998-2006, and as Director from 2003-2006. He has received several fellowships and awards, including the Open Society Justice Initiative Fellowship (2006-2008) and invitation to the US State Department’s International Leadership Visitor Program (IVLP) as an expert in Judicial Systems (2012). Uli is the author of many publications, including clinical legal education resources for practitioners.
 Frank S. Bloch, Global Clinical Movement and Its National and International Counterparts, 5 (2011).
 Siti Aminah, the Mitra Hukum Newsletter, 8 (2011).
Last updated January 30, 2013.
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Welcome to the namati.org website (the “Site”) and the Legal Empowerment Network Forum (the “Forum”) operated by Namati, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Namati”, “we”, “us” or “our”). We share your concern about the protection of your personal information online.
This Policy describes our privacy practices and sets out your obligations and ours with respect to your use of the Site and the Forum. This Policy applies only to the Site and the Forum and does not necessarily apply to our offline collection of information.
Namati may collect and retain two types of information about Site and Forum visitors: (i) personal information that individual visitors voluntarily provide when interacting on the Site or Forum or on certain other occasions (such as via forms or in emails); and (ii) tracking data, which is data that is automatically collected from every Site and Forum visitor as they use and browse the site.
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Request access to your personal data (commonly known as a “data subject access request”). This enables you to receive a copy of the personal data we hold about you and to check that we are lawfully processing it.
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Withdraw consent at any time where we are relying on consent to process your personal data. However, this will not affect the lawfulness of any processing carried out before you withdraw your consent. If you withdraw your consent, we may not be able to provide certain products or services to you. We will advise you if this is the case at the time you withdraw your consent.
You will not have to pay a fee to access your personal data (or to exercise any of the other rights). However, we may charge a reasonable fee if your request is clearly unfounded, repetitive or excessive. Alternatively, we could refuse to comply with your request in these circumstances.
We may need to request specific information from you to help us confirm your identity and ensure your right to access your personal data (or to exercise any of your other rights). This is a security measure to ensure that personal data is not disclosed to any person who has no right to receive it. We may also contact you to ask you for further information in relation to your request to speed up our response.
We try to respond to all legitimate requests within one month. Occasionally it could take us longer than a month if your request is particularly complex or you have made a number of requests. In this case, we will notify you and keep you updated.
If you live in an EEA Member State, all of which have adopted the EU GDPR and national , you have a right to lodge a complaint with your relevant supervisory authority about this policy and its application. The European Commission has a list of EU national data protection authorities here:
If you live in the United Kingdom, you have a right to lodge a complaint with your relevant supervisory authority, the ICO, about this policy and its application:
The Policy was updated in July 2022 to comply with the General Data Protection Regulations.