Land reform in Myanmar is integral to ensuring the nation’s development is both sustainable and inclusive. The recent and complex history of land confiscation, acquisitions, and conflict has permeated every aspect of life for many smallholder farmers, leaving them to rebuild and reclaim their livelihoods. While progress has been made to empower smallholder farmers under the National Land Use Policy, formal and informal land governance and tenure systems remain overwhelmingly administered and controlled by men. Rural women have been left out of local decision-making and discourse around land governance. The recent land reform and current land laws have not taken the necessary measures to ensure women’s access to land. Better-targeted policies and approaches to implementation are needed to ensure women benefit equally from land reform efforts in Myanmar. Namati offers this brief to illustrate how gender affects the lives of smallholder farmers and the paralegals supporting them in Myanmar. We return to this topic as an update to our April 2016 brief, titled “Gendered Aspects of Land Rights in Myanmar,” to further reflect on the experience of Namati’s community-based Paralegal Land Rights and Governance Program. Namati has a database of more than 4500 cases, and this casework data underpins this policy brief In addition, field research was conducted in Bago and Shan to provide further qualitative context and to explore the relationship between customary systems and women’s land rights. It is an excellent time to return to this topic as the new, NLD-led government has implemented some reforms since 2016 and is in the process of drafting and implementing a series of significant new land laws which should be in line with the National Land Use Policy. This policy brief explores the land administration and governance system and its effects on women’s land rights, gendered barriers in patriarchal cultures and customary practices, and the role of paralegals in expanding women’s land rights and increasing women’s participation in land governance. We conclude this brief with recommendations for the Myanmar government and civil society. You can also read the Myanmar language version of this resource.
Last updated January 30, 2013.
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Last updated: May 25, 2018
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Namati may collect and retain two types of information about Site and Forum visitors: (i) personal information that individual visitors voluntarily provide when interacting on the Site or Forum or on certain other occasions (such as via forms or in emails); and (ii) tracking data, which is data that is automatically collected from every Site and Forum visitor as they use and browse the site.
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The Forum uses data about your posts and other activity to make automated decisions about whether your posts are spam.
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From time to time, we may email users of the Site or the Forum information regarding important developments affecting Namati and/or the Global Grassroots Justice Network. We may also email users on occasion regarding the Site or the Forum. Such emails may be sent to users of the Site or Forum even if they have not requested to receive any communication from us.
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Because Namati is concerned about the privacy protection of children who access the Internet, we comply with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Accordingly, the Site and Forum are not intended for use by anyone under the age of 13, and we do not knowingly collect information from anyone under 13 years of age without the consent of a parent or guardian.
We reserve the right to disclose any information to comply with any law, regulation, decree, judgment, order, subpoena or any other governmental order (“Order”) without any obligation to contest or verify the accuracy of such Order.
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The section titles in this Policy are for convenience only and have no legal or contractual effect.
The Site, the Forum, and any third party services they use, may be subject to additional terms and conditions regarding privacy and use of information. Your use of the Site and the Forum is subject to those terms and conditions, which are incorporated into this Policy by reference. In the event of an inconsistency between this Policy and any additional posted conditions, the provisions of the additional conditions shall control.
We may need to change the Policy from time to time in order to address new issues and to reflect changes on the Site or in the law. We reserve the right to revise or make any changes to the Policy, and your continued use of the Site subsequent to any changes to this Policy will mean that you agree to and accept such changes. You can tell if the Policy has been updated by checking the last revised date posted on the top of this page.
You can also access, remove, update or correct your information, and raise any questions or concerns regarding the Site or the Policy, by emailing email@example.com, or mailing:
Namati Data Protection Officer
1616 P Street NW, Suite 101
Washington, DC 20036, USA
If you live in a country which has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (EU; 2016/679), you have a right to lodge a complaint with your relevant supervisory authority about this policy and its application.
The Policy was updated in May 2018 to comply with the General Data Protection Regulations.